Speak About:

Present

Past

Past to Present

Future

Abilities - Responsibilities

Asking Questions

Choosing the Right Phrase

Combining Verbs

Explaining Ideas

Describing Your World

Complex Ideas

Relating Ideas, People, Objects

Speaking about Objects

Wondering about Situations

Giving Reasons

Adverb Clauses

Adverb clauses show cause and effect relationships. Adverb clauses can either begin a sentence, or end a sentence. If the adverb clause begins the sentence, place a comma after the adverb clause. No comma is necessary if the adverb clause finishes the sentence.

Because

An adverb clause with 'because' provides the reason for the action taken in the main clause. Adverb clauses with 'because' generally end a sentence. However, they can also begin a sentence.

Examples:

His mother had to countersign because his credit was bad.

We did not post a bid because we were unable to secure corporate resolution.

Since

'Since' has the same meaning as 'because'.

An adverb clause with 'since' provides the reason for the action taken in the main clause. Adverb clauses with 'since' generally end a sentence. However, they can also begin a sentence.

Examples:

He doesn't want to invest in the business since he doesn't know how it will work out.

He didn't spend the money since he feels it is better to invest.

Prepositions

Because of

Adverb cases beginning with 'because of' are followed by a noun or noun phrase. Adverb clauses with 'because of' generally end a sentence. However, they can also begin a sentence.

Examples:

Because of a corporate resolution against bonuses this year, there will be no bonuses

The market has improved because of the availability of consumer credit.

Due to

Adverb cases beginning with 'due to' are followed is followed by a noun or noun phrase. Adverb clauses with 'due to' generally end a sentence. However, they can also begin a sentence.

Examples:

Due to the practical difficulties, the endorser said 'no' to the scheme.

Due to the confidential nature of my message, I sent it to you under separate cover.