Adverb Clauses with Unexpected Outcomes
Adverb Clauses Showing Opposition (Unexpected Result)
When the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations, use adverb clauses with 'although', 'even though', 'despite' or 'in spite of'.
In spite of the complexity, the as per invoice costs were offered as clearly as possible to the client.
The loan officer chose to endorse the new policies even though she knew it would cost the bank some customers.
We decided to go ahead with the project although the accrual remained.
'Although', 'even though', and 'though' all introduce a full clause that includes both subject and verb. The three expressions can be used interchangeably.
Although the overhead costs are high, we expect to see a profit quickly.
Though the market was crashing, he continued to invest money into his 401K.
The deferred payments application was approved even though the loan officer was warned about his poor credit score.
'Despite' and 'in spite of' are followed by a noun or noun phrase and are followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'despite' or 'in spite of' are used in the middle of a sentence, no commas are required. Use 'despite' or 'in spite of' when the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations,
Despite her second mortgage, she continued to meet her minimum payments on both.
In spite of
'In spite of' is followed by a noun (phrase) and is followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'in spite of' is used in the middle of a sentence, no comma is required.
In spite of the government bond, we still don't have enough money to get started.
The daughter was ruled to be the beneficiary of the estate, in spite of the court challenge.
'Despite' and 'in spite of' convey the same unexpected result and can be used interchangeably.