Adverb Clauses with Unexpected Outcomes
Adverb Clauses Showing Opposition (Unexpected Result)
When the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations, use adverb clauses with 'although', 'even though', 'despite' or 'in spite of'.
Despite the floating-rate loan, the house was not foreclosed upon.
Though they spoke until the last minutes of the meeting, I don't feel like much was accomplished.
In spite of the government bond, we still don't have enough money to get started.
'Although', 'even though', and 'though' all introduce a full clause that includes both subject and verb. The three expressions can be used interchangeably.
We decided to go ahead with the project although the accrual remained.
Though the market was crashing, he continued to invest money into his 401K.
The double entry items remained on the report even though the bank officer disagreed with its relevance.
'Despite' and 'in spite of' are followed by a noun or noun phrase and are followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'despite' or 'in spite of' are used in the middle of a sentence, no commas are required. Use 'despite' or 'in spite of' when the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations,
Despite our trepidations, we have applied for a floating-rate loan.
In spite of
'In spite of' is followed by a noun (phrase) and is followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'in spite of' is used in the middle of a sentence, no comma is required.
In spite of the complexity, the as per invoice costs were offered as clearly as possible to the client.
The daughter was ruled to be the beneficiary of the estate, in spite of the court challenge.
'Despite' and 'in spite of' convey the same unexpected result and can be used interchangeably.