Speak About:

Present

Past

Past to Present

Future

Abilities - Responsibilities

Asking Questions

Choosing the Right Phrase

Combining Verbs

Explaining Ideas

Describing Your World

Complex Ideas

Relating Ideas, People, Objects

Speaking about Objects

Wondering about Situations

Unexpected Results

Adverb Clauses with Unexpected Outcomes

Adverb Clauses Showing Opposition (Unexpected Result)

When the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations, use adverb clauses with 'although', 'even though', 'despite' or 'in spite of'.

Payment is expected, as per invoice, in spite of previous correspondence.

Even though I deferred payments, the interest still continued to pile up.

Despite the floating-rate loan, the house was not foreclosed upon.

'Although', 'even though', and 'though' all introduce a full clause that includes both subject and verb. The three expressions can be used interchangeably.

Although

Example:

I decided to open a savings bank account although I wanted to open a fixed bank account.

Though

Example:

Though they spoke until the last minutes of the meeting, I don't feel like much was accomplished.

Even though

Example:

Even though her stock broker warned her that it was a bad deal, she still bought United Airline stock.

Prepositions

Despite

'Despite' and 'in spite of' are followed by a noun or noun phrase and are followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'despite' or 'in spite of' are used in the middle of a sentence, no commas are required. Use 'despite' or 'in spite of' when the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations,

Example:

Despite her loss of income, she maintained her income by tapping into other areas of revenue.

In spite of

'In spite of' is followed by a noun (phrase) and is followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'in spite of' is used in the middle of a sentence, no comma is required.

Example:

The daughter was ruled to be the beneficiary of the estate, in spite of the court challenge.

In spite of the government bond, we still don't have enough money to get started.

'Despite' and 'in spite of' convey the same unexpected result and can be used interchangeably.