Speak About:

Present

Past

Past to Present

Future

Abilities - Responsibilities

Asking Questions

Choosing the Right Phrase

Combining Verbs

Explaining Ideas

Describing Your World

Complex Ideas

Relating Ideas, People, Objects

Speaking about Objects

Wondering about Situations

Unexpected Results

Adverb Clauses with Unexpected Outcomes

Adverb Clauses Showing Opposition (Unexpected Result)

When the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations, use adverb clauses with 'although', 'even though', 'despite' or 'in spite of'.

Despite the additional collateral the company continued to lose market share to its competitors.

Finding a date of issue for this receipt, though time-consuming, would save the company hundreds.

Payment is expected, as per invoice, in spite of previous correspondence.

'Although', 'even though', and 'though' all introduce a full clause that includes both subject and verb. The three expressions can be used interchangeably.

Although

Example:

Although the overhead costs are high, we expect to see a profit quickly.

Though

Example:

Though they spoke until the last minutes of the meeting, I don't feel like much was accomplished.

Even though

Example:

Even though her stock broker warned her that it was a bad deal, she still bought United Airline stock.

Prepositions

Despite

'Despite' and 'in spite of' are followed by a noun or noun phrase and are followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'despite' or 'in spite of' are used in the middle of a sentence, no commas are required. Use 'despite' or 'in spite of' when the result of the main clause is contrary to expectations,

Example:

Despite the additional collateral the company continued to lose market share to its competitors.

In spite of

'In spite of' is followed by a noun (phrase) and is followed by a comma when introducing the sentence. If 'in spite of' is used in the middle of a sentence, no comma is required.

Example:

In spite of the complexity, the as per invoice costs were offered as clearly as possible to the client.

In spite of the government bond, we still don't have enough money to get started.

'Despite' and 'in spite of' convey the same unexpected result and can be used interchangeably.