Speak About:

Present

Past

Past to Present

Future

Abilities - Responsibilities

Asking Questions

Choosing the Right Phrase

Combining Verbs

Explaining Ideas

Describing Your World

Complex Ideas

Relating Ideas, People, Objects

Speaking about Objects

Wondering about Situations

Life Experience

Present Perfect

Use the present perfect when speaking about an experience that has happened before the present moment when the time of the event remains unspecified.

Example:

She has established her power of attorney.

They have not had an opportunity to increase the limited partnership.

Have you reported the incident to human resources?

In this case, the present perfect is used to express an experience without giving precise details. Whenever you speak about something that has happened up to now without giving a precise point in time, use the present perfect.

Positive Form:

The bank has made its loan application in a user-friendly format.

Negative Form:

They have not had an opportunity to increase the limited partnership.

Question Form:

Have you reported the incident to human resources?

'Ever' and 'Never' with the Present Perfect

Use the present perfect with both 'ever' and 'never'. These time expressions are often used to to discuss experiences.

The bank manager has never asked for the personnel costs report before.

He has never paid any of his collection charges.

Place 'ever' or 'never' directly before the past participle in the question form.

Have you ever had to sell your product at a discount to make up volume?

Have you ever lost an expense receipt?

'Never' means 'not ever' and is a negative form of the present perfect.