Speak About:

Present

Past

Past to Present

Future

Abilities - Responsibilities

Asking Questions

Choosing the Right Phrase

Combining Verbs

Explaining Ideas

Describing Your World

Complex Ideas

Relating Ideas, People, Objects

Speaking about Objects

Wondering about Situations

What Had Already Happened

Past Perfect

The past perfect expresses an action that had finished before another action took place in the past. The past perfect is often used to provide reasons for making a decision in the past.

Example:

Had you discussed appreciation with Tom before you mentioned it at the meeting?

I had already provided collateral on the loan before the bank asked for additional collateral.

I had already agreed to the terms before they offered the additional collateral.

Positive Form:

Subject + had + past participle + (object(s))

He hadn't kept his account for long before it was cancelled.

Negative Form:

Subject + had + not + past participle + (object(s))

She hadn't had time to act on behalf of Jim before she made the presentation.

Question Form:

(Question Word) + have + subject + past participle?

Had you discussed appreciation with Tom before you mentioned it at the meeting?