Speak About:



Past to Present


Abilities - Responsibilities

Asking Questions

Choosing the Right Phrase

Combining Verbs

Explaining Ideas

Describing Your World

Complex Ideas

Relating Ideas, People, Objects

Speaking about Objects

Wondering about Situations

What Had Already Happened

Past Perfect

The past perfect expresses an action that had finished before another action took place in the past. The past perfect is often used to provide reasons for making a decision in the past.


Had you discussed appreciation with Tom before you mentioned it at the meeting?

She hadn't had time to act on behalf of Jim before she made the presentation.

How long had you told her to be held responsible for her own account records before she asked for the promotion?

Positive Form:

Subject + had + past participle + (object(s))

I had already provided collateral on the loan before the bank asked for additional collateral.

Negative Form:

Subject + had + not + past participle + (object(s))

They hadn't come up with enough votes before they protested the bill.

Question Form:

(Question Word) + have + subject + past participle?

Had you confirmed the final balance prior to computing the profit and loss figures?