Providing Extra Information
Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses
Relative pronouns are used to connect two clauses in order to either define or provide additional information about a subject or an object.
who - persons
which - things
where - places
when - times
that - both persons and things
whose - possessive
Defining Relative Clauses
Defining relative clauses provide information which is essential to completely understand the sentence.
He is the leisure and personal traveler who we used as our model.
These are the grilled foods that were chosen for the cover.
That is the wholesaler who was found to be selling paper shreds instead of flour.
Defining relative clauses identify persons or things that otherwise would not be automatically understood.
Relative Pronouns in Defining Relative Clauses
|Person||Thing||Subject||who, that||which, that||Object||that, who, whom||that, which||Possessive||whose||whose, of which|
Non-defining Relative Clauses
Non-defining relative clauses provide information which is not essential, but adds additional information.
"Tour operators, who often wear strange hats, are employed by Universal Studios."
"The manager, who has travelled to China, factored the average daily rate."
"Shopping, which is a common hobby for housewives, is important to the economy."
Correct punctuation is essential in non-defining clauses. A comma is placed both before and after the non-defining clause.
Relative Pronouns in Non-Defining Relative Clauses
|Person||Thing||Subject||who||which||Object||who, whom||which||Possessive||whose||whose, of which|